Most of Turkey sits on the Anatolian peninsula which has been home to people since at least the Neolithic period, around 12,000 years ago. This makes Turkey one of the oldest inhabited regions of the world. Turkey has had a lot of unrest and conflict throughout its history but has always been a key country in the world geopolitical landscape.
Turkey is a transcontinental country located on a strip of land that connects the continents of Europe and Asia. It encompasses an area of 783,356 square kilometers (302,455 square miles) and has a population of around 82 million people, making it the 19th most populous country in the world. Turkey shares land borders with Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. Much of Turkey is surrounded by water with the Black Sea to its north. The great diving locations in the area though lie on its western and southern shores in the Aegean Mediterranean Seas respectively.